In the Spring 2019 Semester, the Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications will be hosting a seminar on Fluid Dynamics. The seminar will take place on Wednesdays from 3:00-4:00pm in CMSA G10.
|9/18/2019||Jiawei Zhuang (Harvard)||Title: Simulation of 2-D turbulent advection at extreme accuracy with machine learning and differentiable programming
Abstract: The computational cost of fluid simulations grows rapidly with grid resolution. With the recent slow-down of Moore’s Law, it can take many decades for 10x higher resolution grids to become affordable. To break this major barrier in high-performance scientific computing, we used a data-driven approach to learn an optimal numerical solver that can retain high-accuracy at much coarser grids. We applied this method to 2-D turbulent advection and achieved 4x effective resolution than traditional high-order flux-limited advection solvers. The machine learning component is tightly integrated with traditional finite-volume schemes and can be trained via an end-to-end differentiable programming framework. The model can achieve near-peak FLOPs on CPUs and accelerators via convolutional filters.
|9/25/2019||Yantao Yang (Peking University)||Title: Double diffusive convection and thermohaline staircases
Abstract: Double diffusive convection (DDC), i.e. the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is omnipresent in many natural and engineering environments. In ocean this is especially true since the seawater density is mainly determined by temperature and salinity. In upper water of both (sub-) tropical and polar oceans, DDC causes the intriguing thermohaline staircases, which consist of alternatively stacked convection layers and sharp interfaces with high gradients of temperature and salinity. In this talk, we will focus on the fingering DDC usually found in (sub-)tropical ocean, where the mean temperature and salinity decrease with depth. We numerically investigate the formation and the transport properties of finger structures and thermohaline staircases. Moreover, we show that multiple states exit for the exactly same global condition, and individual finger layers and finger layers within staircases exhibit very different transport behaviors.
|10/9/2019||Samuel Rudy (MIT)||Title: Data-driven methods for discovery of partial differential equations and forecasting
Abstract: A critical challenge in many modern scientific disciplines is deriving governing equations and forecasting models from data where derivation from first principals is intractable. The problem of learning dynamics from data is complicated when data is corrupted by noise, when only partial or indirect knowledge of the state is available, when dynamics exhibit parametric dependencies, or when only small volumes of data are available. In this talk I will discuss several methods for constructing models of dynamical systems from data including sparse identification for partial differential equations with or without parametric dependencies and approximation of dynamical systems governing equations using neural networks. Limitations of each approach and future research directions will also be discussed.
|10/23/2019||Kimee Moore (Harvard)||Title: Using magnetic fields to investigate Jupiter’s fluid interior
Abstract: The present-day interior structure of a planet is an important reflection of the formation and subsequent thermal evolution of that planet. However, despite decades of spacecraft missions to a variety of target bodies, the interiors of most planets in our Solar System remain poorly constrained. In this talk, I will discuss how actively generated planetary magnetic fields (dynamos) can provide important insights into the interior properties and evolution of fluid planets. Using Jupiter as a case study, I will present new results from the analysis of in situ spacecraft magnetometer data from the NASA Juno Mission (currently in orbit about Jupiter). The spatial morphology of Jupiter’s magnetic field shows surprising hemispheric asymmetry, which may be linked to the dissolution of Jupiter’s rocky core in liquid metallic hydrogen. I also report the first definitive detection of time-variation (secular variation) in a planetary dynamo beyond Earth. This time-variation can be explained by the advection of Jupiter’s magnetic field by the zonal winds, which places a lower bound on the velocity of Jupiter’s winds at depth. These results provide an important complement to other analysis techniques, as gravitational measurements are currently unable to uniquely distinguish between deep and shallow wind scenarios, and between solid and dilute core scenarios. Future analysis will continue to resolve Jupiter’s interior, providing broader insight into the physics of giant planets, with implications for the formation of our Solar System.