In the Spring 2020 and Fall 2020 semesters, the CMSA will be hosting a lecture series on literature in the mathematical sciences, with a focus on significant developments in mathematics that have influenced the discipline, and the lifetime accomplishments of significant scholars. Talks will take place throughout the semester. All talks will take place virtually. You must register to attend. Recordings will be posted to this page.
Written articles will accompany each lecture in this series and be available as part of the publication “The Literature and History of Mathematical Science“
Please note: this registration is for talks taking place in September and October 2002. Registration for the talks taking place in November and later will open on October 6, 2020.
|Camillo De Lellis (IAS)|
Title: Area-minimizing integral currents and their regularity
Abstract: Caccioppoli sets and integral currents (their generalization in higher codimension) were introduced in the late fifties and early sixties to give a general geometric approach to the existence of area-minimizing oriented surfaces spanning a given contour. These concepts started a whole new subject which has had tremendous impacts in several areas of mathematics: superficially through direct applications of the main theorems, but more deeply because of the techniques which have been invented to deal with related analytical and geometrical challenges. In this lecture I will review the basic concepts, the related existence theory of solutions of the Plateau problem, and what is known about their regularity. I will also touch upon several fundamental open problems which still defy our understanding.
|William Casselman (University of British Columbia)|
Title: The origins of Langlands’ conjectures
Abstract: Langlands has made many contributions to number theory, but the principal one is probably his discovery in 1966–67, followed by work in subsequent years, of the role of the dual group in the theories of automorphic forms and L-functions. In order to try to understand what this amounted to, I will trace the origins of this development through work of Ramanujan, Hecke, Siegel, Maass, Selberg, and other mathematicians of the twentieth century.
Talk chair: Wilfried Schmid
|Harry Shum (Tsinghua University)|
Title: From Deep Learning to Deep Understanding
Abstract: In this talk I will discuss a couple of research directions for robust AI beyond deep neural networks. The first is the need to understand what we are learning, by shifting the focus from targeting effects to understanding causes. The second is the need for a hybrid neural/symbolic approach that leverages both commonsense knowledge and massive amount of data. Specifically, as an example, I will present some latest work at Microsoft Research on building a pre-trained grounded text generator for task-oriented dialog. It is a hybrid architecture that employs a large-scale Transformer-based deep learning model, and symbol manipulation modules such as business databases, knowledge graphs and commonsense rules. Unlike GPT or similar language models learnt from data, it is a multi-turn decision making system which takes user input, updates the belief state, retrieved from the database via symbolic reasoning, and decides how to complete the task with grounded response.
|Michael Freedman (Microsoft – Station Q)|
Title: A personal story of the 4D Poincare conjecture
Abstract: The proof of PC4 involved the convergence of several historical streams. To get started: high dimensional manifold topology (Smale), a new idea on how to study 4-manifolds (Casson), wild “Texas” topology (Bing). Once inside the proof: there are three submodules: Casson towers come to life (in the sense of reproduction), a very intricate explicit shrinking argument (provided by Edwards), and the “blind fold” shrinking argument (which in retrospect is in the linage of Brown’s proof of the Schoenflies theorem). Beyond those mentioned: Kirby, Cannon, Ancel, Quinn, and Starbird helped me understand my proof. I will discuss the main points and how they fit together. It will be a “black board” talk in the sense that I will write on the wall behind my laptop – no PowerPoint. I’ve tried this out and it seems to worked.
Talk Chair: Peter Kronheimer
|Claire Voisin (Collège de France)|
Title: Hodge structures and the topology of algebraic varieties
Abstract: We review the major progress made since the 50’s in our understanding of the topology of complex algebraic varieties. Most of the results we will discuss rely on Hodge theory, which has some analytic aspects giving the Hodge and Lefschetz decompositions, and the Hodge-Riemann relations. We will see that a crucial ingredient, the existence of a polarization, is missing in the general Kaehler context.
We will also discuss some results and problems related to algebraic cycles and motives.
Talk chair: Joe Harris
|Ralph Cohen (Stanford University)|
Title: Immersions of manifolds and homotopy theory
Abstract: The interface between the study of the topology of differentiable manifolds and algebraic topology has been one of the richest areas of work in topology since the 1950’s. In this talk I will focus on one aspect of that interface: the problem of studying embeddings and immersions of manifolds using homotopy theoretic techniques. I will discuss the history of this problem, going back to the pioneering work of Whitney, Thom, Pontrjagin, Wu, Smale, Hirsch, and others. I will discuss the historical applications of this homotopy theoretic perspective, going back to Smale’s eversion of the 2-sphere in 3-space. I will then focus on the problems of finding the smallest dimension Euclidean space into which every n-manifold embeds or immerses. The embedding question is still very much unsolved, and the immersion question was solved in the 1980’s. I will discuss the homotopy theoretic techniques involved in the solution of this problem, and contributions in the 60’s, 70’s and 80’s of Massey, Brown, Peterson, and myself. I will also discuss questions regarding the best embedding and immersion dimensions of specific manifolds, such has projective spaces. Finally, I will end by discussing more modern approaches to studying spaces of embeddings due to Goodwillie, Weiss, and others. This talk will be geared toward a general mathematical audience.
Talk chair: Michael Hopkins
|Vyacheslav V. Shokurov (Johns Hopkins University)|
Title: Birational geometry
Abstract: About main achievements in birational geometry during the last fifty years.
|Yujiro Kawamata (University of Tokyo)|
Title: Kunihiko Kodaira and complex manifolds.
Abstract: Kodaira’s motivation was to generalize the theory of Riemann surfaces in Weyl’s book to higher dimensions. After quickly recalling the chronology of Kodaira, I will review some of Kodaira’s works in three sections on topics of harmonic analysis, deformation theory and compact complex surfaces. Each topic corresponds to a volume of Kodaira’s collected works in three volumes, of which I will cover only tiny parts.
|Andrei Okounkov (Columbia University)|
Registration for the talks taking place in November and later will open on October 6, 2020.
|Vaughan Jones (Vanderbilt University)|
Registration for the talks taking place in November and later will open on October 6, 2020.
|Shing-Tung Yau (Harvard) |
Title: Shiing-Shen Chern as a Great Geometer of 20th Century
Video | Slides | Article
| Donald Rubin (Harvard)|
Title: Why do some universities have separate departments of statistics? And are they all anachronisms, destined to follow the path of other dinosaurs?
Video | Slides
| Joe Harris (Harvard)|
Title: Rationality questions in algebraic geometry
Abstract: Over the course of the history of algebraic geometry, rationality questions — motivated by both geometric and arithmetic problems — have often driven the subject forward. The rationality or irrationality of cubic hypersurfaces in particular have led to the development of abelian integrals (dimension one), birational geometry (dimension two) and Hodge theory (dimension 3). But there remained much we didn’t understand about the condition of rationality, such as how it behaves in families. However, there has been recent progress: work of Hassett, Tschinkel, Pirutka and others, working with examples in dimension 4, showed that it is in general neither an open condition nor a closed one, but does behave well with respect to specialization.
In this talk I’ll try to give an overview of the history of rationality and the current state of our knowledge.
|Simon Donaldson (Stony Brook)|
Title: The ADHM construction of Yang-Mills instantons
Abstract: In 1978 (Physics Letters 65A) Atiyah, Hitchin, Drinfeld and Manin (ADHM) described a construction of the general solution of the Yang-Mills instanton equations over the 4-sphere using linear algebra. This was a major landmark in the modern interaction between geometry and physics, and the construction has been the scene for much research activity up to the present day. In this lecture we will review the background and the original ADHM proof, using Penrose’s twistor theory and results on algebraic vector bundles over projective 3-space. As time permits, we will also discuss some further developments, for example the work of Nahm on monopoles and connections to Mukai duality for bundles over complex tori.
Video | Slides
|Lydia Bieri (University of Michigan)|
Title: Black Hole Formation
Abstract: Can black holes form through the focusing of gravitational waves?
This was an outstanding question since the early days of general relativity. In his breakthrough result of 2008, Demetrios Chrstodoulou answered this question with “Yes!”
In order to investigate this result, we will delve deeper into the dynamical mathematical structures of the Einstein equations. Black holes are related to the presence of trapped surfaces in the spacetime manifold.
Christodoulou proved that in the regime of pure general relativity and for arbitrarily dispersed initial data, trapped surfaces form through the focusing of gravitational waves provided the incoming energy is large enough in a precisely defined way. The proof combines new ideas from geometric analysis and nonlinear partial differential equations as well as it introduces new methods to solve large data problems. These methods have many applications beyond general relativity. D. Christodoulou’s result was generalized in various directions by many authors. It launched mathematical activities going into multiple fields in mathematics and physics. In this talk, we will discuss the mathematical framework of the above question. Then we will outline the main ideas of Christodoulou’s result and its generalizations, show relations to other questions and give an overview of implications in other fields.
|Pavel Etingof (MIT)|
Title: Quantum Groups
Abstract: The theory of quantum groups developed in mid 1980s from attempts to construct and understand solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation, an important equation arising in quantum field theory and statistical mechanics. Since then, it has grown into a vast subject with profound connections to many areas of mathematics, such as representation theory, the Langlands program, low-dimensional topology, category theory, enumerative geometry, quantum computation, algebraic combinatorics, conformal field theory, integrable systems, integrable probability, and others. I will review some of the main ideas and examples of quantum groups and try to briefly describe some of the applications.
Video | Slides
|Robert Griess (University of Michigan)|
Title: My life and times with the sporadic simple groups
Abstract: Five sporadic simple groups were proposed in 19th century and 21 additional ones arose during the period 1965-1975. There were many discussions about the nature of finite simple groups and how sporadic groups are placed in mathematics. While in mathematics grad school at University of Chicago, I became fascinated with the unfolding story of sporadic simple groups. It involved theory, detective work and experiments. During this lecture, I will describe some of the people, important ideas and evolution of thinking about sporadic simple groups. Most should be accessible to a general mathematical audience.
Video | Slides
|Ciprian Manolescu (Stanford)|
Title: Four-dimensional topology
Abstract: I will outline the history of four-dimensional topology. Some major events were the work of Donaldson and Freedman from 1982, and the introduction of the Seiberg-Witten equations in 1994. I will discuss these, and then move on to what has been done in the last 20 years, when the focus shifted to four-manifolds with boundary and cobordisms. Floer homology has led to numerous applications, and recently there have also been a few novel results (and proofs of old results) using Khovanov homology. The talk will be accessible to a general mathematical audience.
|Bong Lian (Brandeis)|
Title: From string theory and Moonshine to vertex algebras
Abstract: This is a brief survey of the early historical development of vertex algebras, beginning in the seventies from Physics and Representation Theory. We shall also discuss some of the ideas that led to various early formulations of the theory’s foundation, and their relationships, as well as some of the subsequent and recent developments. The lecture is aimed for a general audience.
Slides | Video