Quantum Matter in Mathematics and Physics 2020-2021

The second Quantum Matter Workshop has been postponed. Accordingly, scheduled talks will be rearranged to take place in this seminar throughout the summer.

To learn how to attend this seminar, please fill out this form. 

Previous Quantum Matter/Condensed Matter Seminar schedule information and video links can be found here.

As part of the program on Quantum Matter in Mathematics and Physics, the CMSA will be hosting two weekly seminars. The Quantum Matter/Quantum Field Theory seminar will take place Wednesdays from 10:30 – 12:00pm on Zoom.  The Condensed Matter/Math Seminar will take place on Thursdays from 10:30 – 12:00pm on Zoom.  In addition to the Quantum Matter seminar, the CMSA will also be hosting a related seminar series on a Strongly Correlated Quantum Materials and High-Temperature Superconductors. Please email the seminar organizer to obtain a link.

The schedules for both seminars will be updated below as speakers are confirmed:

Spring 2021:

DateSpeakerTitle/Abstract
1/20/2021Thomas Peter Devereaux (Stanford University)Title:  Numerical investigations of models of the cuprates

Abstract: Richard Feynman once said “Anyone who wants to analyze the properties of matter in a real problem might want to start by writing down the fundamental equations and then try to solve them mathematically. Although there are people who try to use such an approach, these people are the failures in this field. . . ”  

I will summarize efforts to solve microscopic models of the cuprates using quantum Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group computational methods, with emphasis on how far one can get before failing to describe the real materials. I will start with an overview of the quantum chemistry of the cuprates that guides our choices of models, and then I will discuss “phases” of these models, both realized and not. I will lastly discuss the transport properties of the models in the “not-so-normal” regions of the phase diagram. 
1/21/2021
8:30-10:00pm ET
Masahito Yamazaki (IPMU)Title: Confinement as Analytic Continuation Beyond Infinity
1/27/2021Luigi Tizzano  (SCGP)Title: Instantons, symmetries and anomalies in five dimensions

Abstract: All five-dimensional non-abelian gauge theories have a U(1) global symmetry associated with instantonic particles. I will describe a mixed ’t Hooft anomaly between this and other global symmetries such as the one-form center symmetry or the ordinary flavor symmetry for theories with fundamental matter. I will also discuss how these results can be applied to supersymmetric gauge theories in five dimensions, analyzing the symmetry enhancement patterns occurring at their conjectured RG fixed points.
1/28/2021Simon Catterall (Syracuse university)Title: Chiral Fermions from Staggered Fields

Abstract: I describe a proposal for constructing lattice theories that target certain chiral gauge theories in the continuum limit. The models use reduced staggered fermions and employ site parity dependent Yukawa interactions of Fidkowski-Kitaev type to gap a subset of the lattice fermions without breaking symmetries. I show how the structure of these interactions is determined by a certain topological anomaly which is captured exactly by the generalizations of staggered fermions to triangulations of arbitrary topology. In the continuum limit the construction yields a set of sixteen Weyl fermions in agreement both with results from condensed matter physics and arguments rooted in the Dai-Freed theorem. Finally, I point out the connection to the Pati-Salam GUT model.
2/3/2020Philip Phillips (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign)Title: Beyond BCS: An Exact Model for Superconductivity and Mottness

Abstract: High-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates remains an unsolved problem because the cuprates start off their lives as Mott insulators in which no organizing principle such a Fermi surface can be invoked to treat the electron interactions. Consequently, it would be advantageous to solve even a toy model that exhibits both Mottness and superconductivity. Part of the problem is that the basic model for a Mott insulator, namely the Hubbard model is unsolvable in any dimension we really care about. To address this problem, I will start by focusing on the overlooked Z_2 emergent symmetry of a Fermi surface first noted by Anderson and Haldane. Mott insulators break this emergent symmetry. The simplest model of this type is due to Hatsugai/Kohmoto. I will argue that this model can be thought of a fixed point for Mottness. I will then show exactly[1] that this model when appended with a weak pairing interaction exhibits not only the analogue of Cooper’s instability but also a superconducting ground state, thereby demonstrating that a model for a doped Mott insulator can exhibit superconductivity. The properties of the superconducting state differ drastically from that of the standard BCS theory. The elementary excitations of this superconductor are not linear combinations of particle and hole states but rather are superpositions of doublons and holons, composite excitations signaling that the superconducting ground state of the doped Mott insulator inherits the non-Fermi liquid character of the normal state. Additional unexpected features of this model are that it exhibits a superconductivity-induced transfer of spectral weight from high to low energies and a suppression of the superfluid density as seen in the cuprates.
[1] PWP, L. Yeo, E. Huang, Nature Physics, 16, 1175-1180 (2020).
2/4/2021Diego Delmastro (Perimeter PI)Title: Domain Walls in 4d N=1 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills

Abstract: 4d N=1 super Yang-Mills has multiple gapped vacua arising from the spontaneously broken discrete R-symmetry. Therefore, the theory admits stable domain walls interpolating between any two vacua, but it is a nonperturbative problem to determine the low energy theory on the domain wall. We propose an explicit answer to this question: the domain walls support specific topological quantum field theories. We provide nontrivial evidence for our proposals by exactly matching renormalization group invariant partition functions (twisted by all global symmetries).
2/10/2021Senthil Todadri (MIT)Title: Strange metals as ersatz Fermi liquids: emergent symmetries, general constraints, and experimental tests

Abstract: The strange metal regime is one of the most prominent features of the cuprate phase diagram but yet has remained amongst the most mysterious. Seemingly similar metallic behavior is seen in a few other metals. In this talk, I will discuss, in great generality, some properties of `strange metals’ in an ideal clean system. I will discuss general constraints[1] on the emergent low energy symmetries of any such strange metal. These constraints may be viewed as a generalization of the Luttinger theorem of ordinary Fermi liquids. Many, if not all, non-Fermi liquids will have the same realization of emergent symmetry as a Fermi liquid (even though they could have very different dynamics). Such phases – dubbed ersatz Fermi liquids – share some (but not all) universal properties with Fermi liquids. I will discuss the implications for understanding the strange metal physics observed in experiments . Combined with a few experimental observations, I will show that these general model-independent considerations lead to concrete predictions[2] about a class of strange metals. The most striking of these is a divergent susceptibility of an observable that has the same symmetries as the loop current order parameter.

[1]. Dominic Else, Ryan Thorngren, T. Senthil, https://arxiv.org/abs/2007.0789
[2]. Dominic Else, T. Senthil, https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.10523
2/11/2021Michael Hermele (University of Colorado Boulder)Title: Families of gapped systems and quantum pumps

Abstract: Gapped phases of matter, including topological and fracton phases, are deformation classes of gapped quantum systems, and exhibit a rich array of phenomena. An interesting generalization is to consider parametrized families of gapped systems, and the deformation classes of such families. This talk will describe examples of such parametrized families and their physical properties in the bulk and at spatial boundaries. In particular, we will describe a family of one-dimensional systems that realizes a Chern number pump, which can change the quantized Chern number of a zero-dimensional family placed at its boundary.
2/17/2021Jaume Gomis (Perimeter PI)Title: Global Anomalies on the Hilbert Space

Abstract: We will discuss an elementary way of detecting some global anomalies from the way the symmetry algebra is realized on the torus Hilbert space of the anomalous theory, give a physical description of the imprint of the “layers”that enter in the cobordism classification of anomalies and discuss applications, including how anomalies can imply a supersymmetric spectrum in strongly coupled (nonsupersymmetric) gauge theories.
2/18/2021Xiao-Gang Wen (MIT)Title: A solution to the chiral fermion problem

Abstract: Motivated by the relation between anomaly and topological/SPT order in one higher dimension, we propose a solution to the chiral fermion problem. In particular, we find several sufficient conditions, such that a chiral fermion field theory can be regularized by an interacting lattice model in the same dimension. We also discuss some related issues, such as mass without mass term, and why ‘topological’ phase transitions are usually not “topological” phase transitions.
2/24/2021Zhenghan Wang (Microsoft Station Q)TitleA Riemann sum of quantum field theory:  lattice Hamiltonian realization of TQFTs
 
Abstract: Walker and I wrote down a lattice model schema to realize the (3+1)-Crane-Yetter TQFTs based on unitary pre-modular categories many years ago, and application of the model is found in a variety of places such as quantum cellular automata and fracton physics.  I will start with the conceptual origin of this model as requested by the organizer.  Then I will discuss a general idea for writing down lattice realizations of state-sum TQFTs based on gluing formulas of TQFTs and explain the model for Crane-Yetter TQFTs on general three manifolds.  In the end, I will mention lattice models that generalize the Haah codes in two directions:  general three manifolds and more than two qubits per site. 

If the path integral of a quantum field theory is regarded as a generalization of the ordinary definite integral, then a lattice model of a quantum field theory could be regarded as an analogue of a Riemann sum.  New lattice models in fracton physics raise an interesting question:  what kinds of quantum field theories are they approximating if their continuous limits exist?  Their continuous limits would be rather unusual as the local degrees of freedom of such lattice models increase under entanglement renormalization flow.
2/25/2021Justin Kaidi (SCGP)Title: Exploring Non-Supersymmetric String Theory

Abstract: It has long been known that there exist strings with supersymmetry on the world sheet, but not in spacetime. These include the well-known Type 0 strings, as well as a series of seven heterotic strings, all of which are obtained by imposing unconventional GSO projections. Besides these classic examples, relatively little is known about the full space of non-SUSY theories. One of the reasons why non-SUSY strings have remained understudied is the fact that nearly all of them have closed string tachyons, and hence do not admit ten-dimensional flat space as a stable vacuum. The goal of this talk is two-fold. First, using recent advances in condensed matter theory, we will reinterpret GSO projections in terms of topological phases of matter, thereby providing a framework for the classification of non-SUSY strings. Having done so, we will show that for all non-SUSY theories in which a tachyon exists, it can be condensed to give a (meta)stable lower-dimensional vacuum. In many cases, these stable vacua will be two-dimensional string theories already known in the literature.
3/3/2021Tim Hsieh (Perimeter PI) Title: Symmetry-protected sign problem and magic in quantum phases of matter

Abstract:  We introduce the concepts of a symmetry-protected sign problem and symmetry-protected magic, defined by the inability of symmetric finite-depth quantum circuits to transform a state into a nonnegative real wave function and a stabilizer state, respectively. We show that certain symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases have these properties, as a result of their anomalous symmetry action at a boundary. For example, one-dimensional Z2 × Z2 SPT states (e.g. cluster state) have a symmetry-protected sign problem, and two-dimensional Z2 SPT states (e.g. Levin-Gu state) have both a symmetry-protected sign problem and magic. We also comment on the relation of a symmetry-protected sign problem to the computational wire property of one-dimensional SPT states and the greater implications of our results for measurement based quantum computing.
3/4/2021Mohamed Anber (Clark University)Title: Generalized ‘t Hooft anomalies in vector-like theories

Abstract: ‘t Hooft anomalies provide a unique handle to study the nonperturbative infrared dynamics of strongly-coupled theories.  Recently, it has been realized that higher-form global symmetries can also become anomalous, leading to further constraints on the infrared dynamics.  In this talk, I show how one can turn on ‘t Hooft twists in the color, flavor, and baryon number directions in vector-like asymptotically-free gauge theories, which can be used to find new generalized ‘t Hooft anomalies. I give examples of the constraints the generalized anomalies impose on strongly-coupled gauge theories. Then, I argue that the anomaly inflow can explain a non-trivial intertwining that takes place between the light and heavy degrees of freedom on axion domain walls, which leads to the deconfinement of quarks on the walls.  This phenomenon can be explicitly seen in a weakly-coupled model of QCD compactified on a small circle.
3/10/2021Satoshi Yamaguchi (Osaka U)TBA
3/11/2021Chao-Ming Jian (Cornell)TBA
3/17/2021Silviu S. Pufu (Princeton)TBA
3/18/2021Thomas Dumitrescu (UCLA)TBA
3/24/2021Emily Nardoni (UCLA)TBA
3/25/2021Michael Levin (U Chicago)TBA
3/31/2021Dam Thanh Son (U Chicago)TBA
4/1/2021Naoto Nagaosa (Tokyo U.)TBA
4/7/2021Sakura Schafer-Nameki (University of Oxford)TBA
4/8/2020Anton Kapustin (Caltech)TBA
4/14/2021Lakshya Bhardwaj (University of Oxford)TBA
4/21/2021Sergei Gukov (Caltech)TBA
4/22/2021Dung-Hai Lee (UC Berkeley)TBA
4/28/2021Dominic Williamson (Stanford)TBA
4/29/2021Fiona Burnell (University of Minnesota)TBA
5/5/2021Ady Stern & David Mross (Weizmann)TBA
5/12/2021André-Marie Tremblay (University of Sherbrooke)TBA
5/20/2021Steven Weinberg (UT Austin)TBA

Fall 2020:

DateSpeakerTitle/Abstract
9/2/2020
Subir Sachdev (Harvard University)

Video
This meeting will be taking place virtually on Zoom.

Title: Metal-to-metal quantum phase transitions not described by symmetry-breaking orders

Abstract: Numerous experiments have explored the phases of the cuprates with increasing doping density p from the antiferromagnetic insulator. There is now strong evidence that the small p region is a novel phase of matter, often called the pseudogap metal, separated from conventional Fermi liquid at larger p by a quantum phase transition. Symmetry-breaking orders play a spectator role, at best, at this quantum phase transition. I will describe trial wavefunctions across this metal-metal transition employing hidden layers of ancilla qubits (proposed by Ya-Hui Zhang). Quantum fluctuations are described by a gauge theory  of ghost fermions that carry neither spin nor charge. I will also
describe a separate approach to this transition in a t-J model with random exchange interactions in the limit of large dimensions. This approach leads to a partly solvable SYK-like critical theory of holons and spinons, and a linear in temperature resistivity from time reparameterization fluctuations. Near criticality, both approaches have in common emergent fractionalized excitations, and a significantly larger entropy than naively expected.
9/3/2020
9:30 – 11:00am
Janet Ling Yan Hung (Fudan University)

Video
This meeting will be taking place virtually on Zoom.

TitleGapped Boundaries, Junctions via (fermionic) anyon condensation

Abstract: We study gapped boundaries characterized by “fermionic condensates” in 2+1 d topological order. Mathematically, each of these condensates can be described by a super commutative Frobenius algebra. We systematically obtain the species of excitations at the gapped boundary/ junctions, and study their endomorphisms (ability to trap a Majorana fermion) and fusion rules, and generalized the defect Verlinde formula to a twisted version. We illustrate these results with explicit examples. We will also comment on the connection with topological defects in spin CFTs. We will review necessary mathematical details of Frobenius algebra and their modules that we made heavy use of. 
9/9/2020Ying-Hsuan Lin (Caltech)

Video

This meeting will be taking place virtually on Zoom.

TitleExotic Consistent (1+1)d Anomalies: A Ghost Story


Abstract:  We revisit ‘t Hooft anomalies in (1+1)d non-spin quantum field theory, starting from the consistency and locality conditions, and find that consistent U(1) and gravitational anomalies cannot always be canceled by properly quantized (2+1)d classical Chern-Simons actions.  On the one hand, we prove that certain exotic anomalies can only be realized by non-unitary or non-compact theories; on the other hand, without insisting on unitarity, the exotic anomalies present a small caveat to the inflow paradigm.  For the mixed U(1) gravitational anomaly, we propose an inflow mechanism involving a mixed U(1) x SO(2) classical Chern-Simons action, with a boundary condition that matches the SO(2) gauge field with the (1+1)d spin connection.  Furthermore, we show that this mixed anomaly gives rise to an isotopy anomaly of U(1) topological defect lines.  The holomorphic bc ghost system realizes all the exotic consistent anomalies.
9/10/2020Maissam Barkeshli (Maryland)

Video
This meeting will be taking place virtually on Zoom.

Title: Absolute anomalies in (2+1)D symmetry-enriched topological states and exact (3+1)D constructions

Abstract: Certain patterns of symmetry fractionalization in (2+1)D topologically ordered phases of matter can be anomalous, which means that they possess an obstruction to being realized in purely (2+1)D. In this talk, I will explain our recent results showing how to compute the anomaly for symmetry-enriched topological (SET) states of bosons in complete generality. Given any unitary modular tensor category (UMTC) and symmetry fractionalization class for a global symmetry group G, I will show how to define a (3+1)D topologically invariant path integral in terms of a state sum for a G symmetry- protected topological (SPT) state. This also determines an exactly solvable Hamiltonian for the system which possesses a (2+1)D G symmetric surface termination that hosts deconfined anyon excitations described by the given UMTC and symmetry fractionalization class. This approach applies to general symmetry groups, including anyon-permuting and anti-unitary symmetries. In the case of unitary orientation-preserving symmetries, our results can also be viewed as providing a method to compute the H4(G,U(1)) obstruction that arises in the theory of G-crossed braided tensor categories, for which no general method has been presented to date. This is joint work with D. Bulmash, presented in arXiv:2003.11553
9/16/2020Andreas Karch (UT Austin)

Video
This meeting will be taking place virtually on Zoom.

Title: Branes, Black Holes and Islands

Abstract: I’ll review the basic construction of Randall-Sundrum braneworlds and some of their applications to formal problems in quantum field theory. I will highlight some recent results regarding scenarios with mismatched brane tensions. In the last part of the talk, I’ll review how RS branes have led to exciting new results regarding evaporation of black holes and will put emphasis on the interesting role the graviton mass plays in these discussions.
9/17/2020Roger Mong (University of Pittsburgh)

Video
Title: Universal multipartite entanglement in quantum spin chains

Abstract: Quantum entanglement has played a key role in studying emergent phenomena in strongly-correlated many-body systems.  Remarkably, The entanglement properties of the ground state encodes information on the nature of excitations.  Here we introduce two new entanglement measures $g(A:B)$ and $h(A:B)$ which characterizes certain tripartite entanglement between $A$, $B$, and the environment.  The measures are based off of the entanglement of purification and the reflected entropy popular among holography.  For 1D states, the two measures are UV insensitive and yield universal quantities for symmetry-broken, symmetry preserved, and critical phases.  We conclude with a few remarks regarding applications to 2D phases.
9/23/2020Subir Sachdev (Harvard University)

Video
Title: Metal-to-metal quantum phase transitions not described by symmetry-breaking orders II

Abstract: In this second talk, I will focus on (nearly) solvable models of metal-metal transition in random systems. The t-J model with random and all-to-all hopping and exchange can be mapped onto a quantum impurity model coupled self-consistently to an environment (the mapping also applies to a t-J model in a large dimension lattice,  with random nearest-neighbor exchange). Such models will be argued to exhibit metal-metal quantum phase transitions in the universality class of the SYK model, accompanied by a linear-in-T resistivity from time reparameterization  fluctuations. I will also present the results of exact diagonalization of random t-J clusters, obtained recently with Henry Shackleton, Alexander Wietek, and Antoine Georges.
9/24/2020
12:00 – 2:30pm ET
Inna Vishik (University of California, Davis)

Video
Title: Universality vs materials-dependence in cuprates: ARPES studies of the model cuprate Hg1201

Abstract: The cuprate superconductors exhibit the highest ambient-pressure superconducting transition temperatures (T c ), and after more than three decades of extraordinary research activity, continue to pose formidable scientific challenges. A major experimental obstacle has been to distinguish universal phenomena from materials- or technique-dependent ones. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measures momentum-dependent single-particle electronic excitations and has been invaluable in the endeavor to determine the anisotropic momentum-space properties of the cuprates. HgBa 2 CuO 4+d (Hg1201) is a single-layer cuprate with a particularly high optimal T c and a simple crystal structure; yet there exists little information from ARPES about the electronic properties of this model system. I will present recent ARPES studies of doping-, temperature-, and momentum-dependent systematics of near-nodal dispersion anomalies in Hg1201. The data reveal a hierarchy of three distinct energy scales which establish several universal phenomena, both in terms of connecting multiple experimental techniques for a single material, and in terms of connecting comparable spectral features in multiple structurally similar cuprates.
9/30/2020Jordan Cotler (Harvard)

Video
Title: Gravitational Constrained Instantons and Random Matrix Theory

Abstract: We discover a wide range of new nonperturbative effects in quantum gravity, namely moduli spaces of constrained instantons of the Einstein-Hilbert action.  We find these instantons in all spacetime dimensions, for AdS and dS.  Many can be written in closed form and are quadratically stable.  In 3D AdS, where the full gravitational path integral is more tractable, we study constrained instantons corresponding to Euclidean wormholes.  We show that they encode the energy level statistics of microstates of BTZ black holes, which precisely agrees with a quantitative prediction from random matrix theory.
10/1/2020Omri Golan (Weizmann Institute of Science)

Video
Title: Intrinsic sign problems in topological matter

Abstract: The infamous sign problem leads to an exponential complexity in Monte Carlo simulations of generic many-body quantum systems. Nevertheless, many phases of matter are known to admit a sign-problem-free representative, allowing efficient simulations on classical computers. Motivated by long standing open problems in many-body physics, as well as fundamental questions in quantum complexity, the possibility of intrinsic sign problems, where a phase of matter admits no sign-problem-free representative, was recently raised but remains largely unexplored. I will describe results establishing the existence of intrinsic sign problems in a broad class of topologically ordered phases in 2+1 dimensions.  Within this class, these results exclude the possibility of ‘stoquastic’ Hamiltonians for bosons, and of sign-problem-free determinantal Monte Carlo algorithms for fermions. The talk is based on arxiv:2005.05566 and 2005.05343.
10/7/2020Romain Vasseur (UMass Amherst)

Video
Title: “Symmetry-enriched random critical points and topological phase transitions“

Abstract: In this talk, I will describe how symmetry can enrich strong-randomness quantum critical points and phases, and lead to robust topological edge modes coexisting with critical bulk fluctuations. Our approach provides a systematic construction of strongly disordered gapless topological phases. Using real space renormalization group techniques, I will discuss the boundary and bulk critical behavior of symmetry-enriched random quantum spin chains, and argue that nonlocal observables and boundary critical behavior are controlled by new renormalization group fixed points. I will also discuss the interplay between disorder, quantum criticality and topology in higher dimensions using disordered gauge theories.
10/8/2020Justin Kulp (Perimeter Institute)

Video
Title: Orbifold Groupoids

Abstract: Orbifolds are ubiquitous in physics, not just explicitly in CFT, but going undercover with names like Kramers-Wannier duality, Jordan-Wigner transformation, or GSO projection. All of these names describe ways to “topologically manipulate” a theory, transforming it to a new one, but leaving the local dynamics unchanged. In my talk, I will answer the question: given some (1+1)d QFT, how many new theories can we produce by topological manipulations? To do so, I will outline the relationship between these manipulations and (2+1)d Dijkgraaf-Witten TFTs, and illustrate both the conceptual and computational power of the relationship. Ideas from high-energy, condensed-matter, and pure math will show up in one form or another. Based on work with Davide Gaiotto [arxiv:2008.05960].
10/14/2020Yin-Chen He (Perimeter Institute)

Video
Title: Non-Wilson-Fisher Kinks of Conformal Bootstrap: Deconfined Phase Transition and Beyond

Abstract: Conformal bootstrap is a powerful method to study conformal field theory (CFT) in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Sometimes interesting CFTs such as O(N) Wilson-Fisher (WF) CFTs sit at kinks of numerical bootstrap bounds. In this talk I will first give a brief introduction to conformal bootstrap, and then discuss a new family of kinks (dubbed non-WF kinks) of numerical bootstrap bounds of O(N) symmetric CFTs. The nature of these new kinks remains mysterious, but we manage to understand few special cases, which already hint interesting physics. In 2D, the O(4) non-WF kink turns out to be the familiar SU(2)_1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We further consider its dimensional continuation towards the 3D SO(5) deconfined phase transition, and we find the kink disappears at fractional dimension (around D=2.7), suggesting the 3D SO(5) deconfined phase transition is pseudo-critical. At last, based on the analytical solution at infinite N limit we speculate that there exists a new family of O(N) (or SO(N)) true CFTs for N large enough, which might be a large-N generalization of SO(5) DQCP. 
10/15/2020Louis Taillefer (University of Sherbrooke)

Video
TitleNew signatures of the pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors

Abstract: The pseudogap phase of cuprate superconductors is arguably the most enigmatic phase of quantum matter. We aim to shed new light on this phase by investigating the non- superconducting ground state of several cuprate materials at low temperature across a wide doping range, suppressing superconductivity with a magnetic field. Hall effect measurements across the pseudogap critical doping p* reveal a sharp drop in carrier density n from n = 1 + p above p* to n = p below p, signaling a major transformation of the Fermi surface. Angle-dependent magneto-resistance (ADMR) directly reveals a change in Fermi surface topology across p. From specific heat measurements, we observe the classic thermodynamic signatures of quantum criticality: the electronic specific heat C el shows a sharp peak at p, where it varies in temperature as C el ~ – T logT. At p and just above, the electrical resistivity is linear in T at low T, with an inelastic scattering rate that obeys the Planckian limit. Finally, the pseudogap phase is found to have a large negative thermal Hall conductivity, which extends to zero doping. We show that the pseudogap phase makes phonons become chiral. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for these various new signatures will help elucidate the nature of the pseudogap phase.
10/21/2020Oleg Dubinkin (University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)

Video
Title: Multipole Insulators and Higher-Form symmetries

Abstract: The most basic characteristic of an electrically insulating system is the absence of charged currents. This property alone guarantees the conservation of the overall dipole moment (i.e., the first multipole moment) in the low-energy sector. It is then natural to inquire about the fate of the transport properties of higher electric multipole moments, such as the quadrupole and octupole moments, and ask what properties of the insulating system can guarantee their conservation. In this talk I will present a suitable refinement of the notion of an insulator by investigating a class of systems that conserve both the total charge and the total dipole moment. In particular, I will consider microscopic models for systems that conserve dipole moments exactly and show that one can divide charge insulators into two new classes: (i) a dipole metal, which is a charge-insulating system that supports dipole-moment currents, or (ii) a dipole insulator which is a charge-insulating system that does not allow dipole currents and thus, conserves an overall quadrupole moment. In the second part of my talk I will discuss a more mathematical description of dipole-conserving systems where I show that a conservation of the overall dipole moment can be naturally attributed to a global 1-form electric U(1) symmetry, which is in direct analogy to how the electric charge conservation is guaranteed by the global U(1) phase-rotation symmetry for electrically charged particles. Finally, this new approach will allow me to construct a topological response action which is especially useful for characterizing Higher-Order Topological phases carrying quantized quadrupole moments.
10/22/2020Paul Fendley (University of Oxford)

Video
TitleThe uses of lattice topological defects

Abstract: I will give an overview of my work with Aasen and Mong on using fusion categories to find and analyse topological defects in two-dimensional classical lattice models and quantum chains.  
These defects possess a variety of remarkable properties. Not only is the partition function independent of deformations of their path, but they can branch and fuse in a topologically invariant fashion.  One use is to extend Kramers-Wannier duality to a large class of models, explaining exact degeneracies between non-symmetry-related ground states as well as in the low-energy spectrum. The universal behaviour under Dehn twists gives exact results for scaling dimensions, while gluing a topological defect to a boundary allows universal ratios of the boundary g-factor to be computed exactly on the lattice.  I also will describe how terminating defect lines allows the construction of fractional-spin conserved currents, giving a linear method for Baxterization, I.e. constructing integrable models from a braided tensor category.
10/28/2020Patrick Lee (MIT)

Video
Title: The not-so-normal normal state of underdoped Cuprate

Abstract: The underdoped Cuprate exhibits a rich variety of unusual properties that have been exposed after years of experimental investigations. They include a pseudo-gap near the anti-nodal points and “Fermi arcs” of gapless excitations, together with a variety of order such as charge order, nematicity and possibly loop currents and time reversal and inversion breaking. I shall argue that by making a single assumption of strong pair fluctuations at finite momentum (Pair density wave), a unified description of this phenomenology is possible. As an example, I will focus on a description of the ground state that emerges when superconductivity is suppressed by a magnetic field which supports small electron pockets. [Dai, Senthil, Lee, Phys Rev B101, 064502 (2020)] There is some support for the pair density wave hypothesis from STM data that found charge order at double the usual wave-vector in the vicinity of vortices, as well as evidence for a fragile form of superconductivity persisting to fields much above Hc2. I shall suggest a more direct experimental probe of the proposed fluctuating pair density wave.
10/29/2020Biao Lian (Princeton University)

Video
Title: Symmetry, Insulating States and Excitations of Twisted Bilayer Graphene with Coulomb Interaction

Abstract: The twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) near the magic angle around 1 degree hosts topological flat moiré electron bands, and exhibits a rich tunable strongly interacting physics. Correlated insulators and Chern insulators have been observed at integer fillings nu=0,+-1,+-2,+-3 (number of electrons per moiré unit cell). I will first talk about the enhanced U(4) or U(4)xU(4) symmetries of the projected TBG Hamiltonian with Coulomb interaction in various combinations of the flat band limit and two chiral limits. The symmetries in the first chiral and/or flat limits allow us to identify exact or approximate ground/low-energy (Chern) insulator states at all the integer fillings nu under a weak assumption, and to exactly compute charge +-1, +-2 and neutral excitations. In the realistic case away from the first chiral and flat band limits, we find perturbatively that the ground state at integer fillings nu has Chern number +-mod(nu,2), which is intervalley coherent if nu=0,+-1,+-2, and is valley polarized if nu=+-3. We further show that at nu=+-1 and +-2, a first order phase transition to a Chern number 4-|nu| state occurs in an out-of-plane magnetic field. Our calculation of excitations also rules out the Cooper pairing at integer fillings nu from Coulomb interaction in the flat band limit, suggesting other superconductivity mechanisms. These analytical results at nonzero fillings are further verified by a full Hilbert space exact diagonalization (ED) calculation. Furthermore, our ED calculation for nu=-3 implies a phase transition to possible translationally breaking or metallic phases at large deviation from the first chiral limit.
11/5/2020Zohar Ringel (Racah Institute of Physics)Title: The information bottleneck: A numerical microscope for order parameters. 

Abstract: The analysis of complex systems often hinges on our ability to extract the relevant degrees of freedom from among the many others. Recently the information bottleneck (IB), a signal processing tool, was proposed as an unbiased means for such order parameter extraction. While IB optimization was considered intractable for many years, new deep-learning-based techniques seem to solve it quite efficiently. In this talk, I’ll introduce IB in the real-space renormalization context (a.k.a. RSMI), along with two recent theoretical results. One links IB optimization to the short-rangeness of coarse-grained Hamiltonians. The other provides a dictionary between the quantities extracted in IB, understood only qualitatively thus far, and relevant operators in the underlying field theory (or eigenvectors of the transfer matrix). Apart from relating field-theory and information, these results suggest that deep learning in conjunction with IB can provide useful and interpretable tools for studying complex systems.
11/6/2020
12:30pm
Zhi-Xun Shen (Stanford University)

Video
Title: Essential Ingredients for Superconductivity in Cupper Oxide Superconductors

Abstract: High‐temperature superconductivity in cupper oxides, with critical temperature well above what wasanticipated by the BCS theory, remains a major unsolved physics problem. The problem is fascinating because it is simultaneously simple ‐ being a single band and 1⁄2 spin system, yet extremely rich ‐ boasting d‐wave superconductivity, pseudogap, spin and charge orders, and strange metal phenomenology. For this reason, cuprates emerge as the most important model system for correlated electrons – stimulating conversations on the physics of Hubbard model, quantum critical point, Planckian metal and beyond.
Central to this debate is whether the Hubbard model, which is the natural starting point for the undoped
magnetic insulator, contains the essential ingredients for key physics in cuprates. In this talk, I will discuss our photoemission evidence for a multifaceted answer to this question [1‐3]. First, we show results that naturally points to the importance of Coulomb and magnetic interactions, including d‐wave superconducting gap structure [4], exchange energy (J) control of bandwidth in single‐hole dynamics [5]. Second, we evidence effects beyond the Hubbard model, including band dispersion anomalies at known phonon frequencies [6, 7], polaronic spectral lineshape and the emergence of quasiparticle with doping [8]. Third, we show properties likely of hybrid electronic and phononic origin, including the pseudogap [9‐11], and the almost vertical phase boundary near the critical 19% doping [12]. Fourth, we show examples of small q phononic coupling that cooperates with d‐wave superconductivity [13‐15]. Finally, we discuss recent experimental advance in synthesizing and investigating doped one‐dimensional (1D) cuprates [16]. As theoretical calculations of the 1D Hubbard model are reliable, a robust comparison can be carried out. The experiment reveals a near‐neighbor attractive interaction that is an order of magnitude larger than the attraction generated by spin‐superexchange in the Hubbard model. Addition of such an attractive term, likely of phononic origin, into the Hubbard model with canonical parameters provides a quantitative explanation for all important experimental observable: spinon and holon dispersions, and holon‐ holon attraction. Given the structural similarity of the materials, It is likely that an extended two‐dimensional
(2D) Hubbard model with such an attractive term, will connect the dots of the above four classes of
experimental observables and provide a holistic understanding of cuprates, including the elusive d‐wave superconductivity in 2D Hubbard model.

[1] A. Damascelli, Z. Hussain, and Z.‐X. Shen, Review of Modern Physics, 75, 473 (2003)
[2] M. Hashimoto et al., Nature Physics 10, 483 (2014)
[3] JA Sobota, Y He, ZX Shen ‐ arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.02378, 2020; submitted to Rev. of Mod. Phys.
[4] Z.‐X. Shen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1553 (1993)
[5] B.O. Wells et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 964 (1995)
[6] A. Lanzara et al., Nature 412, 510 (2001)
[7] T. Cuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 117003 (2004)
[8] K.M. Shen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 267002 (2004)
[9] D.M. King et al., J. of Phys. & Chem of Solids 56, 1865 (1995)
[10] D.S. Marshall et al., Phy. Rev. Lett. 76, 484 (1996)
[11] A.G. Loeser et al., Science 273, 325 (1996)
[12] S. Chen et al., Science, 366, 6469 (2019)
[13] T.P. Devereaux, T. Cuk, Z.X. Shen, N. Nagaosa, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 117004 (2004)
[14] S. Johnston et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 166404 (2012)
[15] Yu He et al., Science, 362, 62 (Oct. 2018)
[16] Z. Chen, Y. Wang et al., preprint, 2020
11/11/2020Abhishodh Prakash (ICTS)

Video
Title: Aspects of fermionic SPT phases: boundary supersymmetry and unwinding

Abstract: Symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases are inevitable phases of quantum matter that are distinct from trivial phases only in the presence of unbroken global symmetries. These are characterized by anomalous boundaries which host emergent symmetries and protected degeneracies and gaplessness. I will present results from an ongoing series of works with Juven Wang on boundary symmetries of fermionic SPT phases, generalizing a previous work: arxiv:1804.11236. In 1+1 d, I will argue that the boundary of all intrinsically fermionic SPT phases can be recast as supersymmetric (SUSY) quantum mechanical systems and show that by extending the boundary symmetry to that of the bulk, all fermionic SPT phases can be unwound to the trivial phase. I will also present evidence that boundary SUSY seems to be present in various higher dimensional examples also and might even be a general feature of all intrinsically fermionic SPT phases.
11/12/2020Chandra Varma (University of California, Riverside)

Video
Title: Loop-Current Order and Quantum-Criticality in Cuprates

This talk is organized as follows:
1. Physical Principles leading to Loop-current order and quantum criticality as the central feature in the physics of Cuprates.
2. Summary of the essentially exact solution of the dissipative xy model for Loop-current fluctuations.
3. Quantitative comparison of theory for the quantum-criticality with a variety of experiments.
4. Topological decoration of loop-current order to understand ”Fermi-arcs” and small Fermi-surface magneto-oscillations.

Time permitting,
(i) Quantitative theory and experiment for fluctuations leading to d-wave superconductivity.
(ii) Extensions to understand AFM quantum-criticality in heavy-fermions and Fe-based superconductors.
(iii) Problems.
11/18/2020Antoine Georges (Collège de France, Paris and Flatiron Institute, New York)

Video
Title: Superconductivity, Stripes, Antiferromagnetism and the Pseudogap: What Do We Know Today about the 2D Hubbard model?

 Abstract: Simplified as it is, the Hubbard model embodies much of the complexity of the `strong correlation problem’ and has established itself as a paradigmatic model in the field. In this talk, I will argue that several key aspects of its physics in two dimensions can now be established beyond doubt, thanks to the development of controlled and accurate computational methods. These methods implement different and complementary points of view on the quantum many-body problem. Along with pushing forward each method, the community has recently embarked into a major effort to combine and critically compare these approaches, and in several instances a consistent picture of the physics has emerged as a result. I will review in this perspective our current understanding of the emergence of a pseudogap in both the weak and strong coupling regimes. I will present recent progress in understanding how the pseudogap phase may evolve into a stripe-dominated regime at low temperature, and briefly address the delicate question of the competition between stripes and superconductivity. I will also emphasize outstanding questions which are still open, such as the possibility of a Fermi surface reconstruction without symmetry breaking. Whenever possible, connections to the physics of cuprate superconductors will be made. If time permits, I may also address the question of Planckian transport and bad metallic transport at high temperature.  
11/19/2020Eduardo Fradkin (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

Video
Title: Pair Density Waves and Intertwined Orders in High Tc Superconductors


Abstract: I will argue that the orders that are present in high temperature superconductors naturally arise with the same strength and are better regarded as intertwined rather than competing. I illustrate this concept in the context of the orders that are present in the pair-density-wave state and the phase diagrams that result from this analysis. 
11/25/2020Qimiao Si (Rice University)Title: Bad Metals and Electronic Orders – Nematicity from Iron Pnictides to Graphene Moiré Systems

Abstract: Strongly correlated electron systems often show bad-metal behavior, as operationally specified in terms of a resistivity at room temperature that reaches or exceeds the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit. They display a rich landscape of electronic orders, which provide clues to the underlying microscopic physics. Iron-based superconductors present a striking case study, and have been the subject of extensive efforts during the past decade or so. They are well established to be bad metals, and their phase diagrams prominently feature various types of electronic orders that are essentially always accompanied by nematicity. In this talk, I will summarize these characteristic features and discuss our own efforts towards understanding the normal state through the lens of the electronic orders and their fluctuations. Implications for superconductivity will be briefly discussed. In the second part of the talk, I will consider the nematic correlations that have been observed in the graphene-based moiré narrow-band systems. I will present a theoretical study which demonstrates nematicity in a “fragile insulator”, predicts its persistence in the bad metal regime and provides an overall perspective on the phase diagram of these correlated systems.
12/2/2020Andrey Chubukov (University of Minnesota)TitleInterplay between superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid at a quantum critical point in a metal 

Abstract:  I discuss the interplay between non-Fermi liquid behaviour and pairing near a quantum-critical point (QCP) in a metal. These tendencies are intertwined in the sense that both originate from the same interaction mediated by gapless fluctuations of a critical order parameter. The two tendencies compete because fermionic incoherence destroys the Cooper logarithm, while the pairing eliminates scattering at low energies and restores fermionic coherence. I discuss this physics for a class of models with an effective dynamical interaction V (Ω) ~1/|Ω|^γ (the γ-model). This model describes, in particular, the pairing at a 2D Ising-nematic critical point in (γ=1/3), a 2D antiferromagnetic critical point (γ=1/2) and the pairing by an Einstein phonon with vanishing dressed Debye frequency (γ=2). I argue the pairing wins, unless the pairing component of the interaction is artificially reduced, but because of fermionic incoherence in the normal state, the system develops a pseudogap, preformed pairs behaviour in the temperature range between the onset of the pairing at Tp and the onset of phase coherence at the actual superconducting Tc. The ratio Tc/Tp decreases with γ and vanishes at γ =2. I present two complementary arguments of why this happens. One is the softening of longitudinal gap fluctuations, which become gapless at γ =2. Another is the emergence of a 1D array of dynamical vortices, whose number diverges at γ =2. I argue that once the number of vortices becomes infinite, quasiparticle energies effectively get quantized and do not get re-arranged in the presence of a small phase variation. I show that a new non-superconducting ground state emerges at γ >2. 
12/3/2020David B. Kaplan  (University of Washington)Title: Domain Wall Fermions and Chiral Gauge theories: Topological Insulators in Particle Physics

Abstract:  Ideas from the early1990s for regulating chiral fermions in lattice gauge theory led to a number of developments which paralleled roughly concurrent and independent discoveries in condensed matter physics.  I show how the Integer Quantum Hall Effect, Chern Insulators, Topological Insulators, and Majorana edge states all play a role in lattice gauge theories, and how one can also find relativistic versions of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, the Quantum Spin Hall Effect and related exotic forms of matter.  How to construct a nonperturbative regulator for chiral gauge theories (like the Standard Model!)  remains an open challenge, however, one that may require new insights from condensed matter physics into exotic states of matter.
12/9/2020David Hsieh (Caltech)Title:  Signatures of anomalous symmetry breaking in the cuprates  

Abstract: The temperature versus doping phase diagram of the cuprate high-Tc superconductors features an enigmatic pseudogap region whose microscopic origin remains a subject of intensive study. Experimentally resolving its symmetry properties is imperative for narrowing down the list of possible explanations. In this talk I will give an overview of how optical second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used as a sensitive probe of symmetry breaking, and recap the ways it has been used to solve outstanding problems in condensed matter physics. I will then describe how we have been applying SHG polarimetry and spectroscopy to interrogate the cuprate pseudogap. In particular, I will discuss our data on YBa2Cu3O[1], which show an order parameter-like increase in SHG intensity below the pseudogap temperature T* across a broad range of doping levels. I will then focus on our more recent results on a model parent cuprate Sr2CuO2Cl[2], where evidence of anomalous broken symmetries surprisingly also exists. Possible connections between these observations will be speculated upon.   
[1] L. Zhao, C. A. Belvin, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy, N. P. Armitage and D. Hsieh, “A global inversion-symmetry-broken phase inside the pseudogap region of YBa2Cu3Oy,” Nature Phys. 13, 250 (2017).

[2] A. de la Torre, K. L. Seyler, L. Zhao, S. Di Matteo, M. S. Scheurer, Y. Li, B. Yu, M. Greven, S. Sachdev, M. R. Norman and D. Hsieh. “Anomalous mirror symmetry breaking in a model insulating cuprate Sr2CuO2Cl2,” Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.06516
.
12/10/2020Xinan Zhou (Princeton PCTS)Title: An analytic bootstrap approach for CFTs on RP^d and CFTs with boundaries

Abstract: In this talk, I will introduce an analytic bootstrap approach for two-point correlation functions in CFTs on real projective space, and CFTs with a conformal boundary. We will use holography as a kinematical tool to derive universal results. By examining the conformal block decomposition properties of exchange diagrams in AdS space, we identify a useful new basis for decomposing correlators. The dual basis gives rise to a basis of functionals, whose actions we can compute explicitly via holography. Applying these functionals to the crossing equations, we can systematically extract constraints on the CFT data in the form of sum rules. I will demonstrate this analytic method in the canonical example of \phi^4 theory in d=4-\epsilon, fixing the CFT data to \epsilon^2.  

12/16/2020Zheng-Yu Weng (Tsinghua University)TitleOrganizing Principle of Mottness and Complex Phenomenon in High Temperature Superconductors
 
Abstract: The complex phenomenon in the high-Tc cuprate calls for a microscopic understanding based on general principles. In this Lecture, an exact organizing principle for a typical doped Mott insulator will be presented, in which the fermion sign structure is drastically reduced to a mutual statistics. Its nature as a long-range spin-charge entanglement of many-body quantum mechanics will be exemplified by exact numerical calculations. The phase diagram of the cuprate may be unified in a “bottom-up” fashion by a “parent” ground state ansatz with hidden orders constructed based on the organizing principle. Here the pairing mechanism will go beyond the “RVB” picture and the superconducting state is of non-BCS nature with modified London equation and novel elementary excitations. In particular, the Bogoliubov/Landau quasiparticle excitation are emerging with a two-gap structure in the superconducting state and the Fermi arc in a pseudogap regime. A mathematic framework of fractionalization and duality transformation guided by the organizing principle will be introduced to describe the above emergent phenomenon.
12/17/2020Steven Kivelson (Stanford University)Title: What do we know about the essential physics of high temperature superconductivity after one third of a century?

Abstract: Despite the fact that papers submitted to glossy journals universally start by bemoaning the absence of theoretical understanding, I will argue that the answer to the title question is “quite a lot.” To focus the discussion, I will take the late P.W. Anderson’s “Last Words on the Cuprates” (arXiv:1612.03919) as a point of departure, although from a perspective that differs from his in many key points.
12/22/2020David Tong (University of Cambridge)Title: Gapped Chiral Fermions

Abstract: I’ll describe some quantum field theories that gap fermions without breaking chiral symmetries.

Related Posts