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Counting invariant curves on a Calabi-Yau threefold with an involution
November 2, 2021 @ 9:30 am - 10:30 am
Abstract: Gopakumar-Vafa invariants are integers n_beta(g) which give a virtual count of genus g curves in the class beta on a Calabi-Yau threefold. In this talk, I will give a general overview of two of the sheaf-theoretic approaches to defining these invariants: via stable pairs a la Pandharipande-Thomas (PT) and via perverse sheaves a la Maulik-Toda (MT). I will then outline a parallel theory of Gopakumar-Vafa invariants for a Calabi-Yau threefold X with an involution. They are integers n_beta(g,h) which give a virtual count of curves of genus g in the class beta which are invariant under the involution and whose quotient by the involution has genus h. I will give two definitions of n_beta(g,h) which are conjectured to be equivalent, one in terms of a version of PT theory, and one in terms of a version of MT theory. These invariants can be computed and the conjecture proved in the case where X=SxC where S is an Abelian or K3 surface with a symplectic involution. In these cases, the invariants are given by formulas expressed with Jacobi modular forms. In the case where S is an Abelian surface, the specialization of n_beta(g,h) to h=0 recovers the count of hyperelliptic curves on Abelian surfaces first computed by B-Oberdieck-Pandharipande-Yin. This is joint work with Stephen Pietromonaco.