General Relativity Workshop

2022-05-02 09:00 - 2022-05-05 17:00

General Relativity Workshop on scalar curvature, minimal surfaces, and initial data sets

Dates: May 2–5, 2022

Location: Room G10, CMSA, 20 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 and via Zoom webinar.
Advanced registration for in-person components is required.

Organizers: Dan Lee (CMSA/CUNY), Martin Lesourd (CMSA/BHI), and Lan-Hsuan Huang (University of Connecticut).

Speakers:

  • Zhongshan An, University of Connecticut
  • Paula Burkhardt-Guim, NYU
  • Hyun Chul Jang, University of Miami
  • Chao Li, NYU
  • Christos Mantoulidis, Rice University
  • Robin Neumayer, Carnegie Mellon University
  • Andre Neves, University of Chicago
  • Tristan Ozuch, MIT
  • Annachiara Piubello, University of Miami
  • Antoine Song, UC Berkeley
  • Tin-Yau Tsang, UC Irvine
  • Ryan Unger, Princeton
  • Zhizhang Xie, Texas A & M
  • Xin Zhou, Cornell University
  • Jonathan Zhu, Princeton University

Schedule

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Monday, May 2, 2022

9:30–10:30 am Hyun Chul Jang Title: Mass rigidity for asymptotically locally hyperbolic manifolds with boundary

Abstract: Asymptotically locally hyperbolic (ALH) manifolds are a class of manifolds whose sectional curvature converges to −1 at infinity. If a given ALH manifold is asymptotic to a static reference manifold, the Wang-Chruściel-Herzlich mass integrals are well-defined, which is a geometric invariant that essentially measure the difference from the reference manifold. In this talk, I will present the result that an ALH manifold which minimize the mass integrals admits a static potential. To show this, we proved the scalar curvature map is locally surjective when it is defined on (1) the space of ALH metrics that coincide exponentially toward the boundary or (2) the space of ALH metrics with arbitrarily prescribed nearby Bartnik boundary data. And then, we establish the rigidity of the known positive mass theorems by studying the static uniqueness. This talk is based on joint work with L.-H. Huang.

10:40–11:40 am Annachiara Piubello Title: Estimates on the Bartnik mass and their geometric implications.

Abstract: In this talk, we will discuss some recent estimates on the Bartnik mass for data with non-negative Gauss curvature and positive mean curvature. In particular, if the metric is round the estimate reduces to an estimate found by Miao and if the total mean curvature approaches 0, the estimate tends to 1/2 the area radius, which is the bound found by Mantoulidis and Schoen in the blackhole horizon case. We will then discuss some geometric implications. This is joint work with Pengzi Miao.

LUNCH BREAK
1:30–2:30 pm Ryan Unger Title: Density and positive mass theorems for black holes and incomplete manifolds

Abstract: We generalize the density theorems for the Einstein constraint equations of Corvino-Schoen and Eichmair-Huang-Lee-Schoen to allow for marginally outer trapped boundaries (which correspond physically to apparent horizons). As an application, we resolve the spacetime positive mass theorem in the presence of MOTS boundary in the non-spin case. This also has a surprising application to the Riemannian setting, including a non-filling result for manifolds with negative mass. This is joint work with Martin Lesourd and Dan Lee.

2:40–3:40 pm Zhizhang Xie Title: Gromov’s dihedral extremality/rigidity conjectures and their applications I

Abstract: Gromov’s dihedral extremality and rigidity conjectures concern comparisons of scalar curvature, mean curvature and dihedral angle for compact manifolds with corners. They have very interesting consequences in geometry and mathematical physics. The conjectures themselves can in some sense be viewed as “localizations” of the positive mass theorem. I will explain some recent work on positive solutions to these conjectures and some related applications (such as a positive solution to the Stoker conjecture). The talks are based on my joint works with Jinmin Wang and Guoliang Yu.

TEA BREAK
4:10–5:10 pm Antoine Song (virtual) Title: The spherical Plateau problem

Abstract: For any closed oriented manifold with fundamental group G, or more generally any group homology class for a group G, I will discuss an infinite codimension Plateau problem in a Hilbert classifying space for G. For instance, for a closed oriented 3-manifold M, the intrinsic geometry of any Plateau solution is given by the hyperbolic part of M.

Tuesday, May 3, 2022

9:30–10:30 am Chao Li Title: Stable minimal hypersurfaces in 4-manifolds

Abstract: There have been a classical theory for complete minimal surfaces in 3-manifolds, including the stable Bernstein conjecture in R^3 and rigidity results in 3-manifolds with positive Ricci curvature. In this talk, I will discuss how one may extend these results in four dimensions. This leads to new comparison theorems for positively curved 4-manifolds.

10:40–11:40 am Robin Neumayer Title: An Introduction to $d_p$ Convergence of Riemannian Manifolds I

Abstract: What can you say about the structure or a-priori regularity of a Riemannian manifold if you know certain bounds on its curvature? To understand this question, it is often important to understand in what sense a sequence of Riemannian manifolds (possessing a given curvature constraint) will converge, and what the limiting objects look like. In this mini-course, we introduce the notions of $d_p$ convergence of Riemannian manifolds and of rectifiable Riemannian spaces, the objects that arise as $d_p$ limits. This type of convergence can be useful in contexts when the distance functions of the Riemannian manifolds are not uniformly controlled. This course is based on joint work with Man Chun Lee and Aaron Naber.

LUNCH BREAK
1:30–2:30 pm Zhongshan An Title: Local existence and uniqueness of static vacuum extensions of Bartnik boundary data

Abstract: The study of static vacuum Riemannian metrics arises naturally in differential geometry and general relativity. It plays an important role in scalar curvature deformation, as well as in constructing Einstein spacetimes. Existence of static vacuum Riemannian metrics with prescribed Bartnik data — the induced metric and mean curvature of the boundary — is one of the most fundamental problems in Riemannian geometry related to general relativity. It is also a very interesting problem on the global solvability of a natural geometric boundary value problem. In this talk I will first discuss some basic properties of the nonlinear and linearized static vacuum equations and the geometric boundary conditions. Then I will present some recent progress towards the existence problem of static vacuum metrics based on joint works with Lan-Hsuan Huang.

2:40–3:40 pm Zhizhang Xie Title: Gromov’s dihedral extremality/rigidity conjectures and their applications II

Abstract: Gromov’s dihedral extremality and rigidity conjectures concern comparisons of scalar curvature, mean curvature and dihedral angle for compact manifolds with corners. They have very interesting consequences in geometry and mathematical physics. The conjectures themselves can in some sense be viewed as “localizations” of the positive mass theorem. I will explain some recent work on positive solutions to these conjectures and some related applications (such as a positive solution to the Stoker conjecture). The talks are based on my joint works with Jinmin Wang and Guoliang Yu.

TEA BREAK
4:10–5:10 pm Tin-Yau Tsang Title: Dihedral rigidity, fill-in and spacetime positive mass theorem

Abstract: For compact manifolds with boundary, to characterise the relation between scalar curvature and boundary geometry, Gromov proposed dihedral rigidity conjecture and fill-in conjecture. In this talk, we will see the role of spacetime positive mass theorem in answering the corresponding questions for initial data sets.

Speakers Banquet

Wednesday, May 4, 2022

9:30–10:30 am Tristan Ozuch Title: Weighted versions of scalar curvature, mass and spin geometry for Ricci flows

Abstract: With A. Deruelle, we define a Perelman-like functional for ALE metrics which lets us study the (in)stability of Ricci-flat ALE metrics. With J. Baldauf, we extend some classical objects and formulas from the study of scalar curvature, spin geometry and general relativity to manifolds with densities. We surprisingly find that the extension of ADM mass is the opposite of the above functional introduced with A. Deruelle. Through a weighted Witten’s formula, this functional also equals a weighted spinorial Dirichlet energy on spin manifolds. Ricci flow is the gradient flow of all of these quantities.

10:40–11:40 am Robin Neumayer Title: An Introduction to $d_p$ Convergence of Riemannian Manifolds II

Abstract: What can you say about the structure or a-priori regularity of a Riemannian manifold if you know certain bounds on its curvature? To understand this question, it is often important to understand in what sense a sequence of Riemannian manifolds (possessing a given curvature constraint) will converge, and what the limiting objects look like. In this mini-course, we introduce the notions of $d_p$ convergence of Riemannian manifolds and of rectifiable Riemannian spaces, the objects that arise as $d_p$ limits. This type of convergence can be useful in contexts when the distance functions of the Riemannian manifolds are not uniformly controlled. This course is based on joint work with Man Chun Lee and Aaron Naber.

LUNCH BREAK
1:30–2:30 pm Christos Mantoulidis Title: Metrics with lambda_1(-Delta+kR) > 0 and applications to the Riemannian Penrose Inequality

Abstract: On a closed n-dimensional manifold, consider the space of all Riemannian metrics for which -Delta+kR is positive (nonnegative) definite, where k > 0 and R is the scalar curvature. This spectral generalization of positive (nonnegative) scalar curvature arises naturally, for different values of k, in the study of scalar curvature in dimension n + 1 via minimal surfaces, the Yamabe problem in dimension n, and Perelman’s surgery for Ricci flow in dimension n = 3. We study these spaces in unison and generalize, as appropriate, scalar curvature results that we eventually apply to k = 1/2, where the space above models apparent horizons in time-symmetric initial data sets to the Einstein equations and whose flexibility properties are intimately tied with the instability of the Riemannian Penrose Inequality. This is joint work with Chao Li.

2:40–3:40 pm Zhizhang Xie Title: Gromov’s dihedral extremality/rigidity conjectures and their applications III

Abstract: Gromov’s dihedral extremality and rigidity conjectures concern comparisons of scalar curvature, mean curvature and dihedral angle for compact manifolds with corners. They have very interesting consequences in geometry and mathematical physics. The conjectures themselves can in some sense be viewed as “localizations” of the positive mass theorem. I will explain some recent work on positive solutions to these conjectures and some related applications (such as a positive solution to the Stoker conjecture). The talks are based on my joint works with Jinmin Wang and Guoliang Yu.

TEA BREAK
4:10–5:10 pm Xin Zhou
(Virtual)
Title: Min-max minimal hypersurfaces with higher multiplicity

Abstract: It is well known that minimal hypersurfaces produced by the Almgren-Pitts min-max theory are counted with integer multiplicities. For bumpy metrics (which form a generic set), the multiplicities are one thanks to the resolution of the Marques-Neves Multiplicity One Conjecture. In this talk, we will exhibit a set of non-bumpy metrics on the standard (n+1)-sphere, in which the min-max varifold associated with the second volume spectrum is a multiplicity two n-sphere. Such non-bumpy metrics form the first set of examples where the min-max theory must produce higher multiplicity minimal hypersurfaces. The talk is based on a joint work with Zhichao Wang (UBC).

May 5, 2022

9:00–10:00 am Andre Neves Title: Metrics on spheres where all the equators are minimal

Abstract: I will talk about joint work with Lucas Ambrozio and Fernando Marques where we study the space of metrics where all the equators are minimal.

10:10–11:10 am Robin Neumayer Title: An Introduction to $d_p$ Convergence of Riemannian Manifolds III

Abstract: What can you say about the structure or a-priori regularity of a Riemannian manifold if you know certain bounds on its curvature? To understand this question, it is often important to understand in what sense a sequence of Riemannian manifolds (possessing a given curvature constraint) will converge, and what the limiting objects look like. In this mini-course, we introduce the notions of $d_p$ convergence of Riemannian manifolds and of rectifiable Riemannian spaces, the objects that arise as $d_p$ limits. This type of convergence can be useful in contexts when the distance functions of the Riemannian manifolds are not uniformly controlled. This course is based on joint work with Man Chun Lee and Aaron Naber.

11:20–12:20 pm Paula Burkhardt-Guim Title: Lower scalar curvature bounds for C^0 metrics: a Ricci flow approach

Abstract: We describe some recent work that has been done to generalize the notion of lower scalar curvature bounds to C^0 metrics, including a localized Ricci flow approach. In particular, we show the following: that there is a Ricci flow definition which is stable under greater-than-second-order perturbation of the metric, that there exists a reasonable notion of a Ricci flow starting from C^0 initial data which is smooth for positive times, and that the weak lower scalar curvature bounds are preserved under evolution by the Ricci flow from C^0 initial data.

LUNCH BREAK
1:30–2:30 pm Jonathan Zhu Title: Widths, minimal submanifolds and symplectic embeddings

Abstract: Width or waist inequalities measure the size of a manifold with respect to measures of families of submanifolds. We’ll discuss related area estimates for minimal submanifolds, as well as applications to quantitative symplectic camels.